Science of Golf: course set up

I have a love-hate relationship with golf. Growing up on a midwestern farm, “green” was spring and summer. Today, “green” has very different meanings. Do I want to land my approach shot onto a perfect one? Sure I do (not that it happens all that often). But I think twice when I play on one of Florida’s winter courses (no afternoon downpours) or on a desert course any time (by definition, less than 10 inches of rainfall per year). I see fresh water as the sought-after commodity of the future.

One of the things about the USGA that I’m most enamored with is their commitment to environmental stewardship because slightly more than half of the world’s golf courses are in the United States. While Science of Golf: Course Setup focuses on the tee-to-green setup of Pinehurst No. 2 so that both the men and the women could play the U.S. Open there, the backstory was “what is the course going to look like” to both the player and the viewer AND what is its impact on the environment. Course architects Bill Coore and Ben Crenshaw paid attention to all that when they returned Pinehurst No. 2 to Donald Ross’s original design. That backstory sparked the NSTA-developed lesson plan, which addresses just one aspect of the USGA’s Do’s and Don’ts of Affordable Golf.

The 20 videos in the Science of Golf series, developed by the partnership of NBC Learn, USGA, and Chevron, are available cost-free on The lesson plan linked below each of the videos provides an editable document, so you can make them your own to fit your ever-changing class list at the beginning of the year. Please leave comments below each posting about how well the information worked in your classrooms. And if you had to make significant changes to a lesson, we’d love to see what you did differently, as well as why you made the changes. Leave a comment, and we’ll get in touch with you with submission information.

SOG: Course Setup discusses how Pinehurst No. 2 will be set up “firm and fast” to make it a complete examination of both men and women golfers’ abilities.

STEM Lesson Plan—Adaptable for Grades 4–12
SOG: Course Setup describes how students might design a solution to a problem about how golf courses are set up. It also provides ideas for STEM exploration plus strategies to support students in their own quest for answers.

Image of Native grasses surround the 18th fairway at Pinehrst No. 2. courtesy of ncsuweb.

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What Resources Does the National Science Teachers Association Offer Around Elementary Education and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)?

NGSS@NSTA graphicThe National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) offers a growing collection of resources around the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). While many of our products and services to date more generically target the whole K–12 spectrum, we do have resources designed specifically for elementary school educators.

NSTA’s upcoming full-day virtual conference (August 6 from 10 am to 6 pm EDT) on literacy and NGSSConnecting Literacy and Science With NGSS and Common Core—will be particularly helpful to elementary teachers, who may be under the greatest stress to incorporate both the Common Core and NGSS in their classrooms, and includes an elementary-focused breakout session.

This fall, NSTA will continue the NGSS web seminar series with sessions dedicated to the new standards by grade level. The first, on September 17, will discuss kindergarten standards. Succeeding web seminars will tackle 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th grades. Additional details will soon be available on our website.

Science for the Next Generation book coverIn addition, NSTA Press has produced a number of books on the NGSS. The most elementary-specific of the collection is Science for the Next Generation: Preparing for the New Standards. Other key resources are Introducing Teachers and Administrators to the NGSS: A Professional Development Facilitator’s Guide, Translating the NGSS for Classroom Instruction, The NSTA Reader’s Guide to the Next Generation Science Standards, and The NSTA Reader’s Guide to A Framework for K–12 Science Education.

The NSTA Learning Center, which offers just-in-time, just-for-me professional learning models, also includes materials that support the NGSS. These can be by grade band and include e-chapters, e-articles, archived NGSS web seminars, and more. Plus, NLC-moderated community forums include both elementary science and Next Generation Science Standards, as well as STEM, general science and teaching, and more.

Finally, the Mickelson ExxonMobil Teachers Academy is a unique learning experience designed for elementary teachers in grades 3–5 that focuses heavily on the NGSS scientific and engineering practices. The Academy helps teachers improve student learning experiences by enhancing grade appropriate mathematics and science content knowledge; demonstrating the interrelationships between scientific inquiry and mathematical problem solving; using the math tools to build understanding and connections to science concepts; and modeling “best practices” in teaching and learning. Registration is now open for the 2015 Academy.

A comprehensive list of NSTA resources on the Next Generation Science Standards—which include videos from our National Conference in Boston, a full archive of our NGSS web seminars, books, journal articles, handouts, and more—is most easily accessed via the NGSS@NSTA Hub.

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Professional Development Options

ist-300x224I was recently appointed K-12 science department chairperson. Our professional development budget is slim, but I’d like to do something other than the generic “sit-and-git” presentations we’ve had in the past. I’ve heard about using social media and other online resources for professional development. I’m open to any other ideas, too. Where should we start?
—Lauren, Lowell, Massachusetts

This is a chance to tailor professional development (PD) to the needs of your science teachers, rather than trying to fit your colleagues into one-size-fits-all events (especially since elementary and secondary science teachers may have different needs). First, ask your administrator for state or local PD requirements and the district views on independent study and teacher-directed activities. Find out what types of pre-approval and documentation might be required for nontraditional or off-site activities.

Then ask the science teachers to examine the curriculum to identify science topics in which they need background knowledge or cutting-edge topics and instructional strategies for which they would like more information. Examine areas in which your students are struggling. You have a chance to identify specific areas of need, such as inquiry, lesson design, notebooks, formative assessments, laboratory procedures, safety, reading/writing in science, inclusion, technology integration, or classroom management. The Next Generation Science Standards could certainly be a focus area. NSTA has a variety of resources to help teachers learn about and use them. (See the NGSS@NSTA hub.)

The result of your survey should be individual or group goals reflecting your teachers’ needs. You and the teachers can then find or develop PD activities to meet those goals and describe how you will chart the progress toward meeting them, including teacher logs of their learning. Giving teachers ownership of the content and structure of their PD will improve their buy-in to the process, although those who have had negative experiences in the past may still be skeptical.

This kind of personalized PD will require as much (if not more) work than traditional workshops and presentations. Rather than putting together an extensive list of unrelated events, be sure your activities are connected to your identified needs and goals:

Continue reading …

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Where Can I Find Quality Materials for Preservice Science Teachers?


Kenneth King has been an NSTA member for 20 years. King started his career as a high school science teacher and used his NSTA membership for science lesson plans and activities in his classroom. When he became an education professor, however, he found that he relied on his NSTA membership even more for “good, contemporary ideas for activities and lab experiences.” King says that the NSTA journals help prepare his preservice students to teach science. He respects the role of the journals so much that he writes and reviews articles for them and recently served as chair of Science Scope’s Advisory Board.

King: I teach science methods courses, so I cover a lot of content, and I cover a lot of different grade levels. The NSTA journals are really valuable to me, because it helps to have somebody do the heavy lifting of finding materials that are aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). In addition, the articles connect with what my students will need to know and what they will be required to do as science teachers, so I find the journals to be a great resource to prepare teachers.

As an example, I once did a project with my preservice students where they supported science fairs in local elementary schools. There isn’t much in a science methods textbook on science fairs. Those textbooks tend to be more theoretical, focusing on topics such as inquiry skills. I turned to the NSTA journals and found quality practitioner articles on how to manage science fairs and how to elevate fairs from just show-board experiences. The journals fill a niche that really isn’t filled by any other set of resources. They are grounded in effective pedagogy and research, but provide practitioner-oriented activities and ideas that have been vetted through a review process.

I still make use of a Science Scope article from a number of years ago called “Popcorn Possibilities.” I’ve been able to make use of that in my methods classes as a model of how to do performance-based assessment. I don’t copy the journal articles for my students, but I adapt them into lesson plans. I always share with my students that I got the resource from NSTA. I want to pique their interest and leave them hungry for more so that they’re more likely to become professionally involved with NSTA once they graduate. Students in my classes have to construct a unit of study. I encourage them to access the NSTA resources, which they can get through our university. Students learn that NSTA is a good resource for carrying out their activities and finding excellent teaching materials.

I look at NSTA materials differently than when I was a classroom teacher. As a classroom teacher, I would read the journals and say, “This is something I could do in the classroom or this is something that would help me.” Now, when I read the journals, I’m constantly finding ways to connect my preservice students to those materials. I want to stress to my students that even though they’ll be done with my class at the end of the semester, if they have a good resource like NSTA, then they will always have a friend to help them teach science.

Note from NSTA: What NSTA resources do you find helpful for preparing preservice science teachers? We’d love to hear from you in the comments section below. Not a member of NSTA? Learn more about how to join.

Jennifer Henderson is our guest blogger for this series. Before launching her freelance career as a writer/editor, Jennifer was Managing Editor of The Science Teacher, NSTA’s peer-reviewed journal for high school science teachers.

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Science of Golf: pace of play

This golfer is waiting for the green to clear.

What does a traffic jam on an urban freeway or the queue for a popular amusement park ride have to do with golf? Wait time! It’s a problem that the United States Golf Association (USGA) and others associated with the sport see as a huge issue in getting people out to play (or to watch). Use Science of Golf: Pace of Play and its accompanying lesson plan to explore movement of materials through a circuit, whether those “materials” are people or molecules in a fluid.

This video joins 19 others in the Science of Golf series developed by the partnership of NBC Learn, USGA, and Chevron. Each has a related NSTA-developed lesson plan to enhance your STEM efforts and foster the development of science and engineering practices. The Pace of Play lesson plan focuses on developing and using models, but not the kind science teachers usually think of. Here, students are encouraged to devise a simulation, which in reality is a game. Thinking of a game as an analogy for how a situation might play out gives modeling a whole new spin.

The series is available cost-free on, or jump to the video and lesson plans at the links below. From these blog entries you can download the lesson plans in an editable format to add your personal touch.

And if you’re of the age to have seen Caddyshack in the theater (or drive-in), you’ll love the USGA’s PSA campaign to raise awareness about pace of play. Find direct links in the “writing prompt” section and connect to Common Core ELA at the same time!

SOG: Pace of Play examines how flow rate and cycle times are used to determine why bottlenecks occur on the golf course and what can be done about them.

STEM Lesson Plan—Adaptable for Grades 4–12
SOG: Pace of Play guides students in designing and a game model for fluid motion according to criteria and constraints established by the class. It also provides ideas for STEM exploration plus strategies to support students in their own quest for answers.

Image of boy waiting for the green to clear courtesy of Andy Simonds.

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Are Your Lab Investigations Argument Driven?

ADIThe 27 lab investigations in the new NSTA Press book Argument-Driven Inquiry in Biology: Lab Investigations for Grades 9-12 follow the argument-driven inquiry (ADI) instruction model, which consists of eight stages. These stages are designed to ensure that students have an opportunity to engage in the practices of science during a laboratory investigation and receive the feedback and explicit guidance that they need to improve on each aspect of science proficiency over the course of a school year.

Authors Victor Sampson, Patrick Enderle, Leeanne Gleim, Jonathon Grooms, Melanie Hester, Sherry Southerland, and Kristin Wilson outline the eight ADI stages as follows:

Stage 1: Identification of the Task and the Guiding Question; “Tool Talk”

The goal of the teacher at this stage of the model is to capture the students’ interest and provide them with a reason to design and carry out an investigation.

Stage 2: Designing a Method and Collecting Data

The overall intent of this stage is to provide students with an opportunity to interact directly with the natural world using appropriate tools and data collection techniques and to learn how to deal with the ambiguities of empirical work.

Stage 3: Data Analysis and Development of a Tentative Argument

This stage calls for students to develop a tentative argument in response to the guiding question. Each group needs to be encouraged to first “makes sense” of the measurements they collected and the observations they made during stage 2.

Stage 4: Argumentation Session

Each group is given an opportunity to share, evaluate, and revise their tentative arguments with the other groups; scientific argumentation is an important practice in science and critique leads to better outcomes.

Stage 5: Explicit and Reflective Discussion

This stage of the model provides a context for teachers to explain the nature of scientific knowledge and how this knowledge develops over time. Students develop an appropriate understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry when teachers discuss these concepts in an explicit fashion.

Stage 6: Writing the Investigation Report

Each student is required to write an investigation report using his or her group’s argument that was developed and then evaluated by his or her classmates during the argumentation session.

Stage 7: Double-Blind Peer Review

Each student is required to submit to the teacher three typed copies of his or her investigation report. Reviewing each report as a group is an important component of the peer-review process because it provides students with a forum to discuss “what counts” as high quality or acceptable and in doing so forces them to reach a consensus during the process.

Stage 8: Revision and Submission of the Investigation Report

Once the peer-review process is complete, the final stage is to revise the report based on the suggestions given during the peer review. Once the report is revised, it is turned in to the teacher for evaluation with the original rough draft and the peer-review guide attached.

The 27 lab investigations included in the book are divided into these life science core ideas:

  • From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
  • Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
  • Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
  • Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Each lab investigation includes notes for the teacher, student handouts, additional information for students, and checkout questions. Explore this free lab: Explanations for Animal Behavior: Why Do Great White Sharks Travel Over Long Distances?

The ADI instructional model was designed as a way to make lab activities more authentic and educative for students and thus help teachers promote and support the development of science proficiency inside the classroom. This model reflects research about how people learn science and is also based on what is known about how to engage students in argumentation and other important scientific practices.

This book is also available as an e-book.

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Science of Golf: Newton’s third

KelsieOnTheFairwayMale, female, young, old … physical workouts can be as important to low scores as club and ball design—just ask Rickie Fowler, Belen Mozo, 78-year-old Gary Player, or my college-golfer (and budding engineer) daughter who works out with an ex-NFL player twice each week. The NSTA-developed lesson plan for Science of Golf: Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum gets students thinking along either line as they explore problems sparked by the NBC Learn-developed video. One of those is the increased action/reaction result of stronger core muscles. That, like other ideas in the jam-packed lesson plans might seem a bit tangential, but leading students in some less-than-obvious directions is one way to keep everyone engaged.

The 20-video Science of Golf series that NBC Learn developed in partnership with the United States Golf Association (USGA) and Chevron, brings a sport into the classroom that relatively few students and teachers participate in or observe, say, compared to baseball or even track. Yet, as a vehicle for conveying science, math, engineering, and technology, you could place it at the top of the list. Each one of the accompanying lesson plans gives you myriad ideas for highlighting STEM subjects or facilitating engineering design investigations. Afraid you won’t have the right answer for students? That’s one of the beauties of engineering design investigations—you don’t have to because there is no “right answer.” The best design is the one that performs optimally given the criteria and constraints. Chances are more than one group will end up with optimal design solutions. If so, give students a chance to critique all of the solutions and make claims based on evidence about which one they think is “best.”

Here in this lull before the back-to-school storm, stroll through these videos and others in NBC Learn’s acclaimed “Science Of…” collections. They are available cost-free on And don’t forget the lesson plans!

SOG: Newton’s Third Law explains what happens when a golfer swings a golf club and applies a big force to the small golf ball.

STEM Lesson Plan—Adaptable for Grades 4–12
SOG: Newton’s Third Law describes how students explore the effect of club weight or a golfer’s muscle strength on hitting a ball further. It also provides ideas for STEM exploration plus strategies to support students in their own quest for answers.

Image of our daughter during the NJCAA tournament, courtesy of her dad.

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Science of Golf: collisions and compressions

Self-taught, long-ball hitter Bubba Watson gets a greater payoff from the collision between the driver and the ball than most anyone on tour. Find out what happens during those 500 microseconds in Science of Golf: Energy in Collisions and Compressions developed by the partnership of NBC Learn, Chevron, and the United States Golf Association (USGA). It’s one of twenty that bring you the science, technology, engineering, and math behind the sport.

Download the companion NSTA-developed lesson plans—jam-packed with ideas—that use the videos as a springboard. You might be a bit overwhelmed when you first open up the 20-or-so-page document, but there is a method to the madness!

  • First, the page numbers on the table of contents are hotlinked to that section. Jump right to the end to see standards connections.
  • The BACKGROUND AND PLANNING section gives a verbal description of the video and a timeline for “at a glance” evaluation.
  • Want more STEM ideas? Each discipline in the PROMOTE STEM section has TAKE ACTION tips for engaging students.
  • The FACILITATE ENGINEERING DESIGN INQUIRY supports you in guiding inquiry experiences where students make choices, but within an umbrella context.
  • INCORPORATE VIDEO INTO YOUR LESSON PLAN helps you do just that with a bellringer, slots for 5E, and interdisciplinary and writing connections.
  • The COPY MASTERS include photocopy-ready outlines for students and an example rubric.

Take a look for yourself! The Science of Golf video series is available cost-free on Download the lesson plan at the link below for Word doc you can modify at will.

BTW, the USGA says that during impact the clubhead exerts an average force in excess of 2,000 pounds on the ball, compressing it about one-fourth of its diameter. That’s smashing it!

SOG:  Energy in Collisions and Compressions highlights what happens during the 500 microseconds that the driver is in contact with the ball.

STEM Lesson Plan—Adaptable for Grades 7–12
SOG: Energy in Collisions and Compressions guides students in exploring the coefficient of restitution through an engineering design process. It also provides ideas for STEM exploration plus strategies to support students in their own quest for answers.

Image of Bubba Watson courtesy of jpellgen.

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Three Ways To Be An NSTA Volunteer


MMYM_30minMany educators use summer break to reevaluate career goals. Volunteering is often considered a valuable asset on a resume or CV for almost any profession, including educators. Professionals of any age can develop new skills, expand professional networks, and open doors to opportunities for career growth through volunteering.

Get involved in shaping the future of NSTA by participating in one of the following three options: standing committees, advisory boards, or award review panels. With more than 30 different topics, you are sure to find an opportunity to spark your interest. Take some time to review your options before online applications go live on September 1.

Standing Committees

Standing Committee volunteers review NSTA policies, programs, and activities on an annual basis. Although there are 14 different committee topics, these committees are further broken into three subsets:

  • Level: Volunteers review and report on whether the organization serves the interests of educators at four levels of science teaching: preschool/elementary; middle level; high school; and college.
  • Function: Volunteers review the impact of NSTA’s work on roles outside the classroom, such as coordination and supervision; informal science; multicultural and equity issues; preservice teacher preparation; and professional development.
  • Task: Volunteers review internal and external NSTA tasks and processes behind activities such as awards and recognition; budget and finance; nominations; and organizational auditing.

Committee members work directly with members of the Board of Directors and can have a positive impact on science education at the national level.

Advisory Boards

Have you ever wanted to submit an idea for improvement to an NSTA journal, conference, or program? Do you have a great inkling for innovation in urban science or special education? Advisory Board members have the opportunity to give direct input, guidance, and advice to members of the NSTA staff and the Board of Directors.

More than 15 different Advisory Boards cover the breadth of the organization:

Publication Advisory Boards

  • Science and Children Advisory Board
  • Science Scope Advisory Board
  • The Science Teacher Advisory Board
  • Journal of College Science Teaching Advisory Board

NSTA Reports Advisory Board

Aerospace Programs Advisory Board

Conference Advisory Board

Development Advisory Board

International Advisory Board

Investment Advisory Board

John Glenn Center for Science Education Advisory Board

Retired Members Advisory Board

Science Matters Advisory Board

Science Safety Advisory Board

Special Education Advisory Board

Technology Advisory Board

Urban Science Education Advisory Board

Review Panels

Members who volunteer on Review Panels are charged with joint selection for specific NSTA programs, including the following:

  • Children’s Book Council (which selects the annual “Outstanding Science Trade Books for Children” list)
  • New Science Teachers Academy
  • Shell Science Teaching Award

Volunteers bring outside perspectives and professional experience to NSTA programs, products, and activities, so consider taking your membership beyond reading your journal or attending a conference. Volunteers are essential to the success of NSTA. Join our team of volunteers by applying this fall!

More Time?

The best volunteers love to be part of a team—and they are always looking for passionate new volunteers. Learn more about the current Board of Directors and the newest leaders selected for Standing Committees, Advisory Boards, and Review Panels. Reach out to learn more about these opportunities!

Laura Berry of Cogberry Creative is our guest blogger for this series. Laura is a communications professional for the education community.

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Count on These Science Stories to Engage Your Students

51casestudies“Our students should be able to at least reason quantitatively: to read and interpret data, graphs, and statistics. They should be astute enough to demand to see the evidence when some politician claims that a new drug cures cancer, job numbers are up, our carbon footprint is too big, the president’s budget is the highest ever, and the world is coming to an end on December 21….But if this is a worthy ideal, how do we achieve numerical nirvana?”

Authors Clyde Freeman Herreid, Nancy A. Schiller, and Ky F. Herreid make the case in Science Stories You Can Count On: 51 Case Studies with Quantitative Reasoning in Biology that introductory biology is an ideal place to start. Teaching biology using real stories with quantitative reasoning skills enmeshed in the story line is a powerful and logical way to teach the subject and to show its relevance to the lives of future citizens regardless of whether they are science specialists or laypeople. “Biology is well suited for mathematical description, from the perfect geometry of viruses, to equations that describe the flux of ions across cellular membranes, to computationally intensive models for protein folding.”

The authors also contend: All students need some mathematics. They receive the fundamentals in their K-12 education. Once they are in higher education, the kind and extent of their quantitative instruction depends on their career plans. It is especially important that all students, regardless of their major, leave school knowing what questions to ask when they see data rolled out. One way to approach this is to use active learning, such as case study teaching.

The case studies presented in the book are divided into 12 sections. Each case study presents an abstract, learning objectives, quantitative reasoning skills/concepts, the case study itself, questions, and links to a web version.

The case studies delve into topics that your students will find relevant, dealing with items and questions they face in their daily lives. Here’s a sampling from each section:

The Scientific Method

  • Cell Phone Use and Cancer
  • Is High-Fructose Corn Syrup Bad for the Apple Industry?

Chemistry of Life

The Cell

  • Wrestling With Weight Loss: The Dangers of a Weight-Loss Drug
  • Nanobacteria: Are They or Aren’t They Alive?


  • Elvis Meltdown! Microbiology Concepts of Culture, Growth, and Metabolism
  • Resistance Is Futile…or Is It? The Immunity System and HIV Infection


  • In Sickness and in Health: A Trip to the Genetic Counselor
  • The Case of Desiree’s Baby: The Genetics and Evolution of Human Skin Color

Molecular Biology

  • The Case of the Druid Dracula
  • Which Little Piggy Went to Market? Bioinformatics and Meat Science


  • As the Worm Turns: Speciation and the Maggot Fly
  • Super Bug: Antibiotics and Evolution

Plant Form and Function

  • I’m Looking Over a White-Striped Clover: A Case of Natural Selection
  • Tougher Plants: Beating Stress by Protecting Photosynthesis in Genetically Modified Plants

Animal Form and Function

  • Girl Pulled Alive From Ruins, 15 Days After Earthquake
  • The Hunger Pains: Ghrelin, Weight Loss, and Maintenance


  • Michael’s Story: A Case Study of Autism
  • A Light Lunch? A Case in Calorie Counting

Ecology and Behavior

  • The Dead Zone: Ecology and Oceanography in the Gulf of Mexico
  • Mathematics in Conservation: The Case of the Endangered Florida Panther

Biosphere and Conservation

  • Living Downstream: Atrazine and Coliform Bacteria Effects on Water Quality
  • The Effects of Coyote Removal in Texas: A Case Study in Conservation Biology

These 51 case studies are a great way to engage your students in science and mathematics. Blend 12 areas of general biology with quantitative reasoning in ways that will make your students better at evaluating product claims and news reports.

This book is also available as an e-book.

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